Source: CEN Standard
GeosyntheticGeneric term describing a product, at least one of whose components is made from a synthetic or natural polymer, in the form of a sheet, a strip or a three-dimensional structure, used in contact with soil and/or other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering applications.
Planar, permeable, polymeric textile material, which may be nonwoven, knitted or woven, used in contact with soil and/or other materials in geotechnical and civil engineering applications.
Geotextile made of directionally or randomly orientated fibres, filaments or other elements, mechanically and/or thermally and/or chemically bonded
Asphalt geotextile nonwoven (= paving fabric)
Geotextiles, applied betweeen two layers of asphalt.
Asphalt overlay is in direct contact with traffic.
Construction element of the road applied in one or serveral layers.
Construction made from one or several layers in order to support traffic.
Documentation of product which describe production, function and application.
Emulsion or straight bitumen which is going to saturate the nonwoven geotextile and achieve in addition adhesive bonding of the layers.
Tensile force per cross-sectional area of the specimen prior to loading, carried by a specimen at any given time in a short-term test.
Point on the stress-strain curve, other than the failure point, at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress.
Tensile stress at break
Tensile stress at which the specimen ruptures.
Tensile strength of geotextiles
Maximum tensile stress sustained by the test specimen during a tensile test.
Tensile stress at x% strain
Stress at which the strain reaches the specified value of x %.
Force resulted during Die während eines Belastungsversuchs erhaltene Kraft in kN.
Maximum force (kN) achieved during the load test.
Load at break
Load at rupture of specimen achieved during load test.
Ratio of increase in length to the initial gauge length (%).
Ratio of decrease in thickness to the nominal thickness in percent.
Rate of change in gauge length.
RFID stands for Radio Frequency IDentification. Together with barcodes and camera systems RFID solutions are a member of the family of auto-identification (Auto ID) technologies.
Components of RFID Systems:
An RFID system consists of the following components:
- Transponder (tag/smart label) with data memory and antenna
- Read/write unit (reader) with antenna
- Host/SPS with data processing software
Unlike with optical systems, an RFID transmission works without a line of sight via an air interface. A reader transmits electromagnetic waves, thereby generating an electromagnetic energy field and supplying the transponder with energy. The individualized data or numbers stored in the memory of the RFID transponder can be read out and/or modified.
While reading/writing, the reader’s software controls the actual process. In addition, the system uses RFID middleware with interfaces to ERP systems and databases.
An RFID transponder basically consists of a chip (storage), an antenna (transmitting and receiving) as well as a substrate material. The transponder may be complemented by an additional cover film or an adhesive coating for fastening.
The main functional component of an RFID transponder is the chip. The required read/write speed, encryption, data volume to be stored and other criteria determine the selection and dimensioning of the chip.
Size, shape and frequency of the antenna influence the range of the RFID system.
An inlay is the simplest version of an RFID transponder. It consists of a substrate film onto which the chip and antenna are combined. Inlays can be converted into labels or hardtags.
Version: RFID-label oder RFID-tag
Self-adhesive RFID labels or tags integrate an inlay into a label format. The substrate material is provided with an adhesive coating to ensure the desired adhesion. An additional cover coating is applied on top of the inlay. This coating can be printed with additional information and/or design elements such as logos and inscriptions by digital printing. Many applications use RFID labels in combination with barcode solutions.
To protect inlays from external influences, they are embedded in plastic casings. These so-called hardtags ensure RFID functionality even in rough environments.
Version: casting with PU-resin
Another option is casting the inlay into a PU resin coating. Due to the self-healing and pressure-compensating surface RFID inlays withstand even extremely high loads.
Passiver und aktiver Transponder
Passive transponders are exclusively activated via the electromagnetic field of a reader. Active transponders have their own power supply and a limited lifetime.
Benefit of RFID Transponder
Time savings through:
- Touchfree (remote) data exchange
- Parallel identification of multiple objects
- Nearly 100 % first reading rate
- No line of sight required for data acquisition
- Flexible label positioning
- Optional: maximum resistance against chemical or mechanical influences
- No maintenance required